There are three main sources: natural extraction, biological and chemical.
1. Extraction of active components from natural products
There are some active components in natural products, which can be extracted from simple mixtures by solvent extraction. If the natural product is of complex components or the active component content is very low, we need to use the enzyme or microwave assisted digestion method to make the precursor protein degrade. With the separation and detection of active fragments by detecting equipment, it effectively finds the small active peptide of the mixture.
2. Biosynthesis (gene recombination technology)
Gene recombination technology is to construct recombinant DNA expression vector by constructing polypeptide gene sequence to vector, and to express, extract and purify polypeptide molecules in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. This method is suitable for the preparation of a target polypeptide of more than 50 amino acids, and is easy to obtain.
3. Chemical synthesis (including two methods of liquid phase and solid phase)
Liquid phase method is the first developing method of peptides synthesis, and solid phase peptides synthesis is a commonly used method of peptides synthesis.